DIO Dental Dictionary – Your Comprehensive Guide to Dental Insurance Terms
In order to buy the best individual dental insurance plan for you and your family,
you need to understand exactly what you’re purchasing. However, insurance terminology
can come across as vague and confusing. To help bring clarity to your search, we
compiled a list of common—and not so common—dental insurance terms and defined everything
from agent to waiting period.
If you need additional explanations or assistance with selecting smile-worthy benefits,
help can be found by contacting a dentalinsurance.org sales consultant or your local
Agent: A person licensed to sell insurance products. He or she
may be a captive agent authorized to sell a single carrier’s products or an independent
agent authorized to sell multiple carriers’ products. See also broker
Allowable Charges: The maximum dollar amount on which benefit payment
is based for each dental procedure.
Amalgam: Metallic filling made by combining an alloy of silver,
zinc, lead and tin with mercury.
Annual Maximum Benefit: Maximum dollar amount paid by the dental
plan in a calendar year or plan year.
Basic care: Dental procedures to repair and restore individual teeth due to decay,
trauma, impaired function, attrition, abrasion or erosion. Basic care services may
include oral surgery, endodontics (root canals), fillings and periodontics (tissue/bone
Beneficiary: A person who receives benefits under a dental insurance
Benefit: The amount payable by a third party toward the cost of
various covered dental services or the dental service or procedure covered by the
Bitewing X-ray: An X-ray that reveals the crown and the adjacent
tissue of the upper and lower jaws on the same film; it is used to detect decayed
areas between teeth.
Braces: Metallic bands and appliances used to move teeth for correction
of the bite and tooth position.
Bridge: Appliance to replace a missing tooth or teeth attached
to and supported by abutment teeth.
Broker: A person licensed and authorized to sell insurance products for multiple
carriers; see also agent and producer.
Calendar-year maximum: The maximum amount of benefits payable under
the certificate in a calendar year (January 1 through December 31 of the same year).
Caries: Decaying teeth; also known as cavities.
Carrier: The insurance company that sells a dental insurance plan/policy, issues
it and contractually assumes the associated risk. Also called the insurer.
Certificate of coverage: A legal document detailing a member or
Certificate holder: The insured person under the policy.
Certificate of dental insurance: A legal document detailing a member’s
Coinsurance: The arrangement between the insurance carrier and the insured in which
the insured person pays a specified portion of covered expenses. For example, the
charge is $100 paid at 80 percent by the insurance carrier, which means the insured
person pays $20.
Composite: White platic filling material of resin and quartz crystals.
Contract fee schedule plan: A dental benefit plan in which participating dentists
agree to accept a list of specific fees as the total fees for dental treatment provided.
Copay—or copayment: A cost-of-sharing arrangement in which a member pays a specified
charge at the time of service; for example, $15 for an office visit.
Coverage: Benefits available to an individual covered under a dental
Covered charge: The reasonable and customary charge for a medically
necessary covered procedure that is performed by a dentist or a dental hygienist
acting under the supervision and direction of a dentist.
Covered person: An individual who is eligible for benefits under
a dental benefit program.
Covered services: Services for which payment is provided under
the terms of the dental benefit contract.
Deductible: TThe set dollar amount for covered procedures that
an insured person must pay in a calendar year before the dental plan pays benefits.
Dentures: Any dental appliance to replace missing natural teeth
and surrounding tissues.
Dental benefit plan: Entitles covered individuals to specified
dental services in return for a fixed, periodic payment made in advance of treatment.
Such plans often include the use of deductibles, coinsurance and/or maximums to
control the cost of the program to the purchaser.
A plan that financially assists in the expense of treatment and care of dental disease
and accidents to teeth
Dependents: Generally spouse and children of covered individual,
as defined by terms of the dental benefit contract.
Diagnostic care: Dental services used to detect dental disease.
Diagnostic services may include X-rays, exams and other evaluation.
Discount plan: For a membership fee, participants receive access to discounted rates
on dental services at participating providers. Members pay providers directly at
the time of service. A dental discount plan is not an insurance plan.
Effective date: The date an individual and/or dependents become
eligible for benefits under a dental benefit contract; also known as the eligibility
Endodontics (root canals): Dental specialty concerned with the
treatment of diseases of the dental pulp (nerves, blood vessels, etc., within the
Eruption: When a new tooth comes in, it erupts when it breaks the
surface of the gums and you can see it.
Explanation of benefits (EOB): The EOB is not a bill; it details
how the claim was processed and indicates the portion of the claim paid to the dentist
and the portion of the claim that the client needs to pay (if applicable).
Exclusions: Dental services not covered under a dental benefit
Extraction: Separation and surgical removal of a tooth from its
Family deductible: Deductible that may be satisfied by the combined
expenses for all covered family members.
Fee Schedule: A list of the charges established or agreed to by
a dentist for specific dental services.
Filling: Material used to fill a cavity in a tooth; the substance
may be gold, silver, amalgam, copper amalgam, acrylic resins, porcelain or cement.
Full mouth X-Ray: Usually consists of 14 periapical films plus
Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gum tissue.
Implant: A device of metal or other foreign material that is surgically
placed into or on the upper or lower bone to support a crown, bridge or partial
or full denture.
Impacted Tooth: Tooth that has not erupted and is embedded in the
Indemnity - Individual Dental
Insurance: A dental plan that allows you to choose your own individual
or family dentist. An insured individual and/or his or her employer pay a monthly
premium to the insurance company, which pays the dental provider on a traditional
Individual deductible: Amount of eligible expense a covered person
must pay each year before the dental plan will pay for eligible benefits.
Inlay: A porcelain or metal restoration to be inserted into a previously
prepared cavity in a tooth and retained with cement.
Insurer: An organization that bears the financial risk for the
cost of defined categories or services for a defined group of beneficiaries.
In-network provider: A dentist who is under contract with the insurance
company or its subcontracted vendor.
nsured/insured person/member: The individual named on the schedule
of benefits as the insured who has coverage under the policy.
Lingual Surface: Surface of the tooth toward the tongue.
Limitations: Restrictive conditions stated in a dental benefit
contract, such as age, length of time covered, and waiting periods, which affect
an individual's coverage. The contract may also exclude certain benefits or services,
or it may limit the extent or conditions under which certain services are provided.
Major services: Dental procedures concerned with the restoration
of teeth by cast restorations such as inlays, onlays, crowns, or veneers; major
services may include endodontics (root canals) or periodontics (tissue/bone treatment).
Maximum benefit: The maximum dollar amount a program will pay toward
the cost of dental care incurred by an individual or family in a specific period,
usually a calendar year.
Member: An individual enrolled in a dental benefit program.
Occlusal X-ray: An intraoral film showing the lingual surfaces
of the teeth and a portion of the hard palate.
Onlay: Restoration that is extended to cover the entire incisal
or occlusal surface of the tooth; often used to restore lost tooth structure and
increase the height of the tooth.
Oral Surgery: Dental specialty concerned with the surgical procedures
in and around the mouth and jaw.
specialty concerned with the correction of improper alignment of the upper and lower
Out-of-network provider: A dental provider who is not under contract
with the insurance company or its subcontracted vendor.
Overbite: Misalignment of the upper and lower teeth or jaws in
which the upper teeth overlap the lower teeth when the mouth is closed.
Participating dentist: Any dentist who has a contractual agreement
with a dental benefit organization to render care to eligible persons.
Palate: The roof of the mouth
Pedodontics: Dental specialty concerned with the prevention and
treatment of dental disorders in children
Periodontics: Dental specialty concerned with diseases of the gums
and other supportive structures of the teeth
Plaque: Sticky substance composed of secretions containing bacteria,
dead tissue cells and debris. When this harmful substance accumulates on teeth,
it is considered to be an initiation factor in gingival inflammation.
Point of service: Arrangements in which patients with a managed
care dental plan have the option of seeking treatment from an "out-of-network" provider.
The reimbursement for the patient is usually based on a low table of allowances,
with significantly reduced benefits than if the patient had selected an "in-network"
Policy: The insurance contract providing the benefits described
and issued to the policyholder.
Policyholder: TThe group or individual in whose name the policy
is issued, as shown on the schedule of benefits.
Porcelain: Restorative material of various types of fused (molten)
glasses; used to make teeth, facings, jackets and dentures.
PPO service area: The geographical area in which the insurance
carrier has arranged to provide PPO services to covered persons.
Preauthorization: Statement by a third-party payer indicating that
proposed treatment will be covered under the terms of the benefit contract.
Precertification: Confirmation by a third-party payer of a patient’s
eligibility for coverage under a dental benefit program.
Predetermination: An administrative procedure that may require
the dentist to submit a treatment plan to the third party before treatment is begun.
The third party usually returns the treatment plan indicating one or more of the
following: patient's eligibility, guarantee of eligibility period, covered services,
benefit amounts payable, application of appropriate deductibles, co-payment and/or
maximum limitation. Under some programs. predetermination by the third party is
required when covered charges are expected to exceed a certain amount, such as $200.
Pre-existing Conditions: Oral health condition of an enrollee that
existed before his or her enrollment in a dental plan.
Preferred Provider Organization
(PPO): Dental insurance plans that contract with a network of dentists
and negotiate discounted rates for plan participants. When care is sought out of
network, it is often covered but will cost more out of pocket.
Premium: The amount charged by a dental benefit organization for
coverage of a level of benefits for a specified time.
Prepaid dental plan: A method of financing the cost of dental care
for a defined population, in advance of receipt of services.
Prescription drugs: Drugs that may only be dispensed by written
prescription under federal law, and approved for general use by the Food and Drug
Preventive dentistry: Refers to the procedures in dental practice
and health programs that prevent the occurrence of oral diseases.
Preventive care: Dental procedures concerned with the prevention
of dental diseases by protective and educational measures; preventive services may
include examination, cleanings, X-rays and fluoride.
Prophylaxis: Teeth cleaning.
Prosthodontic services: Dental specialty concerned with the restoration
of missing teeth by artificial needs.
Reasonable and customary charge: The most common charge for similar
professional services, drugs, procedures, devices, supplies or treatment within
the geographic area in which the charge is incurred.
Recession: Gradual drawing of tissue from its normal position;
for example, the recession of the gum away from the tooth.
Resin: Organic materials, usually named according to chemical composition,
physical structure or means of curing; frequently referred to as “plastic.”
Reimbursement: Payment made by a third party to a beneficiary or
to a dentist on behalf of the beneficiary, toward repayment of expenses incurred
for a service covered by the contractual arrangement.
Retainer: Appliance to prevent collapse of the dental arch.
Root canal therapy (endodontic therapy): Treatment of a tooth having
damaged pulp, usually performed by removing the pulp chamber and root canals and
filling these spaces with inert sealing material.
Scale: To remove tarter and stains from teeth with special dental
Schedule of allowances: A list of covered services with an assigned
dollar amount that represents the total obligation of the plan with respect to payment
for such services, but does not necessarily represent the dentist's full fee for
Schedule of benefits: A listing of the services for which payment
will be made by a third-party payer, without specification of the amount to be paid.
Sealant: Material applied to the chewing surface of a tooth to
Silicate: Materials developed for dental restorations that have
a lesser amount of precious metals
Surgical extraction: Removal of a tooth by surgical methods.
Tarter: Hard deposit that forms on the teeth when plaque hardens.
Termination date: The date on which the dental benefit contract
expires or the date an individual ceases to be eligible for benefits.
Third-party administrator: An individual or company contracted
by the insurance carrier to hire some aspect of its operation, such as claims processing.
Commonly called a TPA.
Usual, customary and reasonable (UCR) plan: A dental benefit plan
that determines benefits based on usual, customary and reasonable fee criteria.
Veneer crown: full crown that has one or more surfaces covered
by tooth-colored plastic or porcelain.
Waiting period: The time period during which a dental plan participant
must wait before certain benefits will be paid. Waiting periods typically start
on the plan’s effective date.